Singapore is an island nation located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It lies 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia's Riau Islands. At 704.0 km2 (272 sq mi), it is one of the few remaining city-states in the world and the smallest country in Southeast Asia.
The British East India Company established a trading post on the island in 1819. The main settlement at that point was a Malay fishing village at the mouth of the Singapore River. Several hundred indigenous Orang Laut people also lived around the coast, rivers and smaller islands. The British used Singapore as a strategic trading post along the spice route. It became one of the most important commercial and military centres of the British Empire. When it was occupied by the Japanese during World War II, Winston Churchill called it Britain's greatest defeat. Singapore reverted to British rule in 1945. In 1963, it merged with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. Less than two years later it split from the federation and became an independent republic on 9 August 1965. Singapore joined the United Nations on September 21 that same year.
In Japan, a junior idol (ジュニアアイドル junia aidoru), alternatively chidol (チャイドル chaidoru) or low teen (ローティーン rōtīn), is primarily defined as a child or early teenager pursuing a career as a photographic model (this includes both gravure and AV).
Child actors, and J-pop singers (whose musical genre is often termed idol pop) can also be considered junior idols, and are often featured in photobooks and image DVDs.
Female fashion models (not to be confused with glamour models including gravure idols) also begin their careers typically at age 13 - 15, but are usually not considered junior idols. Child models, whose careers are usually over by their early teenage years, are also not usually considered junior idols.