The Republic of China (Hanyu Pinyin: Zhonghua Minguo Tongyong Pinyin: Jhonghua Minguo Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo) is a state in East Asia that has evolved from a single-party state with full global recognition into a multi-party democratic state with limited international recognition. It was a founding member of the United Nations. Established in 1912, the Republic of China encompassed much of mainland China. In 1945 at the end of World War II the Republic of China added the island groups of Taiwan (Formosa) and the Pescadores to its authority. These island groups, together with Kinmen and Matsu, became the full extent of the Republic of China's authority after 1949 when the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Chinese Communist Party and the People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded in mainland China. Under ROC law, these areas are known as the Free Area of the Republic of China.
In Japan, a junior idol (ジュニアアイドル junia aidoru), alternatively chidol (チャイドル chaidoru) or low teen (ローティーン rōtīn), is primarily defined as a child or early teenager pursuing a career as a photographic model (this includes both gravure and AV).
Child actors, and J-pop singers (whose musical genre is often termed idol pop) can also be considered junior idols, and are often featured in photobooks and image DVDs.
Female fashion models (not to be confused with glamour models including gravure idols) also begin their careers typically at age 13 - 15, but are usually not considered junior idols. Child models, whose careers are usually over by their early teenage years, are also not usually considered junior idols.